Given the rapid changes with CLTS in Africa over the last two years, it is clear that we have moved into a different landscape… the key concern of all stakeholders is how to scale up with quality at sub-district, district, province
or region, and national levels.
At the Third Africa Conference on Hygiene and Sanitation (AfricaSan 3) held in Kigali, Rwanda, from 19–21 July 2011, it was clear that in the three years since the previous AfricaSan conference, and only five years since its initial rollout in Africa, community-led total sanitation (CLTS) had spread and diversified to become more embedded in Africa than in any other region.
This chapter, in an edited collection based on the conference papers, looks at the progress and maturing of CLTS in Africa. It introduces innovations and adaptations, poses questions and challenges, and suggests ways forward as CLTS goes to scale on the continent.