This study examined the sanitation hardware supply chain in rural, low density settings in Indonesia and Vietnam. It investigated actual costs along the chains to understand the challenges and opportunities to support affordable sanitation in remote, rural locations.
Data were collected from four remote districts in Indonesia and Vietnam through a systematic value-chain analysis comprising 378 interviews across households and supply chain actors, using quantitative and qualitative analysis.
The study presented three main findings. First, poor households, which are often located in remote areas with lower sanitation access, often incurred higher costs in building durable latrines than households in accessible areas or district capitals. Second, locally sourced materials (sand, bricks or gravel) had a greater influence on price than externally sourced materials (cement, steel and toilet pans), even accounting for cost increases of these materials along the supply chain. Third, transport and labour represented some of the largest costs in building a toilet.
These findings highlight logistical and financial barriers to poor households in remote areas being able to access sanitation. Findings can inform strategies to improve the availability and affordability of sanitation products and services — key issues that need to be addressed through government and non-government pro-poor, market-based interventions.