Gaps in Knowledge and Further Research Needs

July 2016

Programmes, projects, and institutions across the board must set up better mechanisms for, and, through providing time and capacitybuilding, encourage action learning.

This is a book chapter taken from Sustainable Sanitation For All: Experiences, Challenges and Innovations

Having considered these different dimensions of sustainability of Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) and water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) across different countries’ and organization’s experiences, it is clear that while there is a lot of existing experience and research that points us in the direction of how to make outcomes more sustainable and inclusive, there are many unknowns that require further investigation.

Many of these have been identified by the authors in the preceding chapters. Nevertheless, below, we list some of these gaps in our current knowledge and thinking and propose the key issues that need more research.

Additional details

PublisherPractical Action Publishing
ThemesBehaviour change, Sustainability and safely managed sanitation
ApproachesCommunity-led approaches, Learning approaches

Vernon, N. and Bongartz, P. (2016) ‘Gaps in Knowledge and Further Research Needs’, in Bongartz, P., Vernon, N. and Fox, J. (eds), Sustainable Sanitation for All: Experiences, Challenges, and Innovations, Rugby, UK: Practical Action Publishing­­­­, doi:


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