Swachh Bharat Mission (Gramin) Immersive Research

Approach Guidelines
October 2017

… our research… unpacks what approaches have proven effective in motivating collective behaviour change at scale in rural India and seeks to understand how and why these changes have taken place.

Praxis, the community-led total sanitation (CLTS) Knowledge Hub at the Institute of Development Studies (IDS), together with WaterAid, undertook an immersive research project to learn from the experiences of three districts in India that had been declared open defecation free (ODF).

The researchers spent three nights and up to four days in each of a total of eight villages in Madhya Pradesh (3), Uttar Pradesh (2) and Rajasthan (3). The mixed gender teams stayed with families, without a specific agenda, learning open-endedly from lived experience, observation and conversations.

The main report sums up the key findings and suggests ways to strengthen the Swachh Bharat Mission – Gramin; the policy and practice note presents actionable recommendations; and the methodology note describes the activities, challenges, lessons learnt and guidance for use of the methodology by others.

Additional details

PublisherInstitute of Development Studies, Praxis & WaterAid
ThemesBehaviour change, Campaigns, Leave no one behind, Monitoring, evaluation and learning, Tools and processes
ApproachesImmersive approaches, Learning approaches

Praxis, IDS and WaterAid (2017) Swachh Bharat Mission (Gramin) Immersive Research, Brighton: IDS, Praxis and WaterAid


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