Lessons Learned from the National Sanitation Campaign in Njombe District, Tanzania

October 2019

Sanitation remains one of the Sustainable Development Goals, with slow progress. Tanzania has been implementing the National Sanitation Campaign through a Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) approach since 2012. In 2019 Njombe District Council (DC) was identified to be among the best performing councils in the implementation of the sanitation campaign.

A qualitative study was conducted to document how the CLTS was carried out in Njombe DC, assess progress on CLTS implementation and define the success factors for CLTS implementation. Findings show that the CLTS intervention directly related to increased coverage of improved latrines at a household level from 7.5% before the intervention in 2011 to 99.8% in September 2018. In addition, households with functional hand washing facilities have increased from 5.1% before the intervention to 94% in September 2018.

A key factor in the success of this campaign was the involvement of political leaders and government officials from the council level to the lowest governmental unit offering vital support for the CLTS implementation. The best mix of sanitation education, regulation and enforcement was instrumental in raising community awareness, changing collective behavior, making people comply with the village sanitation laws, and the overall success in the sanitation campaign.

Additional details

PublisherJournal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development & Regnihaldah Mpete
RegionEastern Africa
ThemesBehaviour change, Campaigns, Design, nudges and cues, Social norms
ApproachesCommunity-led approaches, Sanitation approaches

Share this resource

Learn more about SLH Research

We use a range of research approaches, which aim to draw attention to urgent knowledge gaps, blind spots and emerging questions, often at a critical point in time, to support policy-makers, practitioners and partners in navigating and responding swiftly.

SLH Research and Learning